Blood on the Snow: The Carpathian Winter War of 1915 by Graydon A. Tunstall (book review)
The Carpathian campaign of 1915 - called the Stalingrad of the World War I - pushed the troops of Austria-Hungary and Russia into fierce winter combat, as the Habsburg forces tried to save 130,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers under the siege in Fortress Przemysl.
Hungary opens Trianon Memorial Park for lost territories
Hungary has opened a memorial park south of Budapest to mark the Treaty of Trianon which stripped the country of almost 2/3 of its territory and millions of Hungarians. Under Trianon, signed after World War I, most of the lost territory went to Romania, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Speaking at the opening Laszlo Tokes said he regrets that 9 decades later Trianon still seems a taboo topic in Hungary, adding that it was time for Hungary to "face up to its past" and not to forget Trianon, "because peace and safety can only be established on truth."
Slovenia's forgotten World War I front, Pictures from mountain trenches
Slovenia: Bloody WW1 campaign above the Soca River echoes in the mountains today. "The Italians were up there on the Kolovrat ridge," remarked Edward Granville. "When the fighting started in earnest in 1915 they selected their best troops, bersaglieri and alpini mountain fighters, to attack the Austro-Hungarians. But after a year they were using pretty much anyone..." There were 11 major Italian offensives on the Soca Front (the Isonzo Front) trying to break eastward into Austria. What these armies were doing, entrenched opposite each other along the Soca River mountains a few hundred feet apart, mirrored their Allies on the Western Front in Flanders.
Museum of 1914 Sarajevo assassination that triggered WWI reopens (Article no longer available from the original source)
The Museum of Sarajevo 1878-1918 that tells the story of the 1914 assassination that sparked the First World War reopened after renovations. It catalogues the period of Austro-Hungarian rule and the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Gavrilo Princip fatally shot Ferdinand on June 28, 1914, on a street corner near Latin Bridge. Pictures went around the world: the archduke and his pregnant wife Sophie slumped in the back of an open car. Princip was captured and sent to prison where he died of tuberculosis 4 years later. The shots led Austria-Hungary to declare war on Serbia, dismembering the Habsburg Empire and igniting WWI.
Assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Article no longer available from the original source)
In 1914, the Balkan Peninsula was known as the "Powder Keg" of Europe. The unrest in this region was so tense that people knew it was only a matter of time before war erupted. On June 28, 1914 Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand was visiting the Bosnia-Herzegovina. A secret society of Serbian nationals known as the Black Hand, was meeting to arrange for the assassination. They sent three men to assassinate him... In order to avoid the crowds, the governor decided that the car should go different route, but he forgot to tell the driver, who turned right into the sights of the misplaced assassin.
Trianon is an bad word to Hungarians - Losing WW1 (Article no longer available from the original source)
Trianon signifies the dismemberment of pre-1918 Hungary, according to which three million or more ethnic Magyarok - including a sizeable Hungarian Jewish minority - were left adrift in neighboring countries, most especially in Romania. Hungary, as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, had been on the losing side in World War I, and the Treaty of Trianon, signed in Paris in 1919, signified the price it would pay. The carve-up dominated Hungarian politics between the wars, and resonates strongly to this day.
Czechoslovak legions formed in Russia, Italy and France (Article no longer available from the original source)
More than 100 graves and a mass grave with remains of Czechoslovak legionaires will be accessible to the public at the military cemetery in Vladivostok. Czechoslovak legions were formed in Russia, Italy and France during World War I. Their members were Czechs and Slovaks who were taken prisoner by the Allies or deserted the Austro-Hungarian forces. They became entangled in the civil war in Russia against their will. It is estimated that up to 50,000 Czechs and Slovaks passed through Russia in the years 1918-20. More than 4000 soldiers have never returned.
Aircraft of the Aces - Austro Hungarian Aces of World War I
World War One brought with it the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which had dominated Central Europe for centuries. Starting the war with only 35 aircraft, Austro-Hungarian industry went on to produce only moderate numbers of poor quality warbirds. The fliers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire operating on the Serbian and Russian fronts were fortunate at first - faced by small numbers of aircraft yet more obsolescent than their own. Serbia fell in 1915, but when Italy declared war the Austro-Hungarians were still faced with a two-front war - a static front against Italy, and a fluid one against Russia.